Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (Aa.LPS) is a major virulence factor associated with aggressive periodontitis. Although the recognition of Aa.LPS is potentially initiated by salivary proteins in the oral cavity, Aa.LPS-binding proteins (Aa.LPS-BPs) in saliva are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to capture and identify Aa.LPS-BPs in human saliva using a LTQ-Orbitrap hybrid Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Aa.LPS conjugated onto N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-Sepharose(®) 4 Fast Flow beads (Aa.LPS-beads) activated Toll-like receptor 4 and produced nitric oxide and Interferon gamma-inducible protein-10, implying that the conjugation process did not alter the biological properties of Aa.LPS. Aa.LPS-BPs were subsequently isolated from the nine human saliva samples from healthy individuals with the Aa.LPS-beads followed by identification with the mass spectrometry. Aa.LPS-BPs include α-amylase, serum albumin, cystatin, lysozyme C, submaxillary gland androgen-regulated protein 3B, immunoglobulin subunits, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, deleted in malignant brain tumors 1, prolactin-inducible protein, lipocalin-1, and basic salivary proline-rich protein 2. Specific binding was validated using a pull-down assay with α-amylase which was captured at the highest frequency. Alpha-amylase demonstrated to interfere with the adherence and biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Even heat-inactivated α-amylase showed the interference to the same extent. Conclusively, we identified unique Aa.LPS-BPs that provide useful information to understand bacterial pathogenesis and host innate immunity in the oral cavity.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.