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MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
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    MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 1432, updated on 8-Oct-2017
    Official Symbol
    MAPK14provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    mitogen-activated protein kinase 14provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6876
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000112062 MIM:600289; Vega:OTTHUMG00000159806
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    RK; p38; CSBP; EXIP; Mxi2; CSBP1; CSBP2; CSPB1; PRKM14; PRKM15; SAPK2A; p38ALPHA
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), or its autophosphorylation triggered by the interaction of MAP3K7IP1/TAB1 protein with this kinase. The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    6p21.31
    Exon count:
    22
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 6 NC_000006.12 (36027635..36122964)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (35995412..36079013)

    Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene solute carrier family 26 member 8 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375035 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375034 Neighboring gene divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102723648 Neighboring gene mitogen-activated protein kinase 13

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 CN54 Env (gp120) induces phosphorylation of RELA (p65), IRF3, MAPK14 (p38), and MAPK1 (ERK1/2) through TLR4 induction in monocyte derived macrophages; anti-TLR4 antibodies could inhibit this activation PubMed
    env HIV-1 Env (gp120) binds to CD209 (DC-SIGN), which activates NFKB1 (NF-kB), MAPK1 (ERK1/2), and MAPK14 (p38) PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-6 is regulated by p38 MAPK, IkappaBalpha, and p65 NF-kappaB activation in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced upregulation of CXCR3 and EMAP2 expression and apoptosis requires activation of p38 MAPK in human lung microvascular endothelial cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 via the p38 signaling pathway and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in astrocytes PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 activates AKT, ERK1/2, and p38 signaling in tonsil CD4+ T cells. Soluble CD4 inhibits AKT and ERK1/2 activation, but enhances phosphorylation of p38 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120/41 Envelope proteins form a complex with integrin alpha4beta7 and chemokine receptor CCR5 on the CD4-negative gamma-delta T cell membrane, which leads to activation of the p38-caspase pathway and induces the death of gamma-delta cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-mediated enhancement of potassium voltage-gated channel KV1.3 protein is required for microglia neurotoxicity through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway PubMed
    env p38 MAPK-mediated p53 phosphorylation on serine 46 contributes to apoptosis induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (gp120/gp41) PubMed
    env Gp120/IFN-gamma-mediated cytotoxicity of human brain micro vascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) involves p38 MAPK signaling pathway PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 decreases adult neural progenitor cell proliferation via the p38 MAPK-MAPKAPK2-Cdc25C signaling pathway PubMed
    env Tumor suppressor protein PML is required for the activating phosphorylation of ATM, p38 MAPK, and p53 in HIV-1 Env-elicited syncytia PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced migration of dendritic cells is regulated by a novel kinase cascade involving Pyk2, p38 MAP kinase, and LSP1 PubMed
    env Treatment of human hepatic stellate cells with gp120 significantly increases secretion and gene expression of CCL2, metalloprotease-1 and interleukin-6. Gp120 also induces activation of Akt, NF-kappaB, and p38(MAPK) PubMed
    env Increased neurotoxicity mediated by cocaine and gp120 involves signaling pathways including c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal cell death involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase; both HIV-1 coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, can mediate HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity PubMed
    env The transcription factors and kinases c-Jun, JNK, MEK, p38 MAPK, STAT-3, JAK-1, TFII D, TFII F, eIF-4E, and RNA polymerase II are induced by HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    env CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptor engagement by HIV-1 gp120 in primary macrophages activates 2 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced increases in caspase-3 activity, neurite losses and neuronal death are prevented by p38 MAPK, but not c-jun-N-terminal kinase PubMed
    env STAT1 associates with p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner after HIV-1 gp120/HCV E2 costimulation in human hepatocytes PubMed
    env HCV-E2 and HIV-1 gp120 act collaboratively to trigger a specific set of downstream signaling pathways that include activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2, in hepatocytes PubMed
    env CXCR4-tropic and CXCR4/CCR5 dual-tropic HIV-1 gp120 induce the cleavage of CD62 ligand by a mechanism dependent on matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, CD4, CXCR4, Galpha(i), and p38 MAPK, whereas CCR5-tropic gp120 does not PubMed
    env Morphine potentiates HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis, which involves activation of the p38 MAPK cellular signaling pathway PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK) is induced by incubation of HIV-1 gp160 with CD4+complement receptor type 2 (CR2)+ cells PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env HIV-1 gp120/41 Envelope proteins form a complex with integrin alpha4beta7 and chemokine receptor CCR5 on the CD4-negative gamma-delta T cell membrane, which leads to activation of the p38-caspase pathway and induces the death of gamma-delta cells PubMed
    env p38 MAPK-mediated p53 phosphorylation on serine 46 contributes to apoptosis induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (gp120/gp41) PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef-induced strong activation of MAP kinases (p38/MAPK14, JNK/MAPK8, and ERK1/2) and NF-kappaB pathway (IKK alpha/beta) in M2-macrophages is mediated by TAK1 PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef induces phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in M2-type macrophages PubMed
    nef Knockdown of p38 MAPK alpha or delta by siRNA shows significant reduction of CCL5 levels, suggesting that p38 MAPK alpha and delta proteins are involved in Nef-mediated upregulation of CCL5 PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef-induced programmed death 1 (PD-1) upregulation requires its proline-rich motif and the activation of the downstream kinase p38 PubMed
    nef Nef inhibits ASK1/p38MAPK-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef myristoylation is required for the rapid and transient phosphorylation of the alpha- and beta- subunits of the Ikappa-B kinase complex and activation of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK family members PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat protein activates RELA (p65), MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38, and PKC-bII in a TLR4-dependent manner in human monocytes PubMed
    tat Tat activates at least three signaling pathways concurrently, including NF-kappaB, PKC, ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases and IKKalpha pathways, to promote production of IL-10 PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of MAPK14 (p38) in CRT-MG human astroglioma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat increases phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, p38, AKT1, MEK-1, and STAT-1alpha in Muller glia and brain microvascular pericytes PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) activation is required for MMP-9 expression in human astrocytes PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 expression involves MEK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK proteins and downstream IKK2/NF-kappaB signaling pathways PubMed
    tat Phosphorylated DING (pDING) inhibits HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal cell injury by suppressing the activity of serine/threonine kinases p38 MAPK and Cdk5 and enhancing the activity of neuroprotective factor MEF2 through the phosphotase activity of pDING PubMed
    tat Knocking down Nox2 by siRNA decreases HIV-1 Tat-induced NF-KappaB activation as well as activation of MAP kinases including ERK, JNK, and p38 PubMed
    tat Tat-induced IL-10 expression is regulated by p38 MAPK- and CaMK II-activated CREB-1 as well as Sp-1 transcription factors PubMed
    tat Calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMK-II)-activated p38 MAPK play a role in extracellular Tat-induced IL-10 expression in primary human monocytes PubMed
    tat Cell-permeable SOD inhibits the activation of MAP kinases including ERK, JNK and p38 and the upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by HIV-1 Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha PubMed
    tat The cysteine to serine mutation at position 31 in HIV-1 clade C Tat results in a marked decrease in IL-10 production in monocytes compared with clade B Tat. p38alpha/p38beta and phosphoinositide 3-kinase are crucial to Tat-induced IL-10 production PubMed
    tat Activation of p38 MAPK in HIV-infected cells mediated by Tat leads to the phosphorylation of p53 which subsequently upregulates CAV-1 expression PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced glutamate release is mediated through p38 and p42/44 MAPK and through NADPH oxidase and the x(c)(-) cystine-glutamate antiporter (xCT) PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced retrotransposition of long interspersed element-1 depends on an AhR-MAPK/p38-C/EBP-beta cascade via the LQQLL motif of Vpr PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces IL-6 production via activation of MAPK p38 PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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      Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHuman thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary lobe, which plays an important physiological role in regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-th...
    • Hypothesized Pathways in Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Hypothesized Pathways in Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease, organism-specific biosystemThe pathways hypothesized to be involved in cardiovascular diseases begin with LTBPs and Fibrillins activating a TGFBR complex. The complex can begin the canonical TGFB pathway involving SMAD protei...
    • IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe IL-1 family of cytokines currently consists of 11 members which are encoded by distinct genes and includes IL-1?, IL-1?, and the IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). The major role of IL-1 type cyt...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL-4 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-4 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-4 is a glycoprotein which is composed of 129 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 20kDa. IL-4 and IL-13 are produced by CD4+ cells and exhibit significant functional overlap. Both these cytok...
    • IL12-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL12-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL12-mediated signaling events
    • IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL2-mediated signaling events
    • IL4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL4-mediated signaling events
    • IL6-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL6-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL6-mediated signaling events
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
    • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
    • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
    • Interferon type I signaling pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Interferon type I signaling pathways, organism-specific biosystemThe type I IFNs (IFN? family, IFN?, IFN?, IFN? and IFN?) all bind to and signal via the type I IFN receptor complex. The type I receptor consists of two main IFNAR1, IFNAR2c receptor chains and other...
    • KSRP (KHSRP) binds and destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      KSRP (KHSRP) binds and destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystemKSRP binds to AU-rich sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs. KSRP causes the bound mRNA to be targeted for hydrolysis by recruiting exonucleases and decapping enzymes. The activity of KSR...
    • Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemKit is a cytokine receptor that belongs to the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. It is structurally similar to platelet-derived growth factor recpetors (PDGFRs), colony stimulating factor-1 r...
    • Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
    • Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
    • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
    • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leukocyte transendothelial migration, organism-specific biosystemLeukocyte migaration from the blood into tissues is vital for immune surveillance and inflammation. During this diapedesis of leukocytes, the leukocytes bind to endothelial cell adhesion molecules (C...
    • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leukocyte transendothelial migration, conserved biosystemLeukocyte migaration from the blood into tissues is vital for immune surveillance and inflammation. During this diapedesis of leukocytes, the leukocytes bind to endothelial cell adhesion molecules (C...
    • MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, one of the most ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, is involved in many processes of immune responses. The MAP kinases cascad...
    • MAPK (p38) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (p38) signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK (p38) signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (p38) signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
      MAPK Cascade
    • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystemMAPKs are protein kinases that, once activated, phosphorylate their specific cytosolic or nuclear substrates at serine and/or threonine residues. Such phosphorylation events can either positively or ...
    • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
    • Mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystemMitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling occur in response to exercise and redox state (reviewed in Scarpulla et al. 2012, Handy and Loscalzo 2012, Piantadosi and Suliman 2012, Scarpulla 2011, Wenz et...
    • Monoamine Transport, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Monoamine Transport, organism-specific biosystem
      Monoamine Transport
    • MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemMammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of...
    • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
    • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
    • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
    • Myogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Myogenesis, organism-specific biosystemMyogenesis, the formation of muscle tissue, is a complex process involving steps of cell proliferation mediated by growth factor signaling, cell differentiation, reorganization of cells to form myotu...
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NOD1/2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NOD1/2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemNOD1 is ubiquitously expressed, while NOD2 expression is restricted to monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and intestinal Paneth cells (Inohara et al. 2005). NOD1 and NOD2 activation induces tra...
    • Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemNanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling. Several NP formulations were shown to interact with cellular receptors such as the EGFR and integrins, inducing cellular phenotypes such as pro...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
    • Nuclear Events (kinase and transcription factor activation), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nuclear Events (kinase and transcription factor activation), organism-specific biosystemAn important function of the kinase cascade triggered by neurotrophins is to induce the phosphorylation and activation of transcription factors in the nucleus to initiate new programs of gene express...
    • Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways, organism-specific biosystemThe innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms, a broad specificity response characterized by the recruitment and activation of phagocytes and the release of an...
    • Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) - type cytokine family. It is mainly produced in cell types such as activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes,...
    • Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystemThis module describes the biogenesis of organelles. Organelles are subcellular structures of distinctive morphology and function. The organelles of human cells include: mitochondria, endoplasmic reti...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Oxidative Stress, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oxidative Stress, organism-specific biosystemOxidative stress represents an imbalance between the production and manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to rep...
    • Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystemOxidative stress, caused by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, can happen as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the oncogenic RAS (Moiseeva et al...
    • Parkinsons Disease Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Parkinsons Disease Pathway, organism-specific biosystemMost people with Parkinson's disease have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause). A small proportion of cases, however, can be attributed to known genetic factors. Mutations ...
    • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce an acute stress response mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), its downstream MAPKs that target c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, MAPK8) a...
    • Photodynamic therapy-induced NFE2L2 (NRF2) survival signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Photodynamic therapy-induced NFE2L2 (NRF2) survival signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce an antioxidant response mediated by NFE2L2.
    • Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystemPathways in physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Largely based on the article from Wang Y; ''Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathologica...
    • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemUnder normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory in charact...
    • Platelet sensitization by LDL, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet sensitization by LDL, organism-specific biosystemPhysiological concentrations (1g/L) of Low density lipoprotein (LDL) enhance platelet aggregation responses initiated by thrombin, collagen, and ADP. This enhancement involves the rapid phosphorylati...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      RAC1 signaling pathway
    • RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemRANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B) and the natural decoy receptor of RANKL, OPG (Osteoprotegerin) are three important mol...
    • RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemViral pathogen RNA are recognized by host helicases called RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) that include DDX58 (RIG-I), DHX58 (LGP2), IFIH1 (MDA5), SNW1, and DDX17. These RLR proteins then go on to initia...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemRac1/p38 pathway from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Rapid glucocorticoid signaling
    • Regulation of Androgen receptor activity, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of Androgen receptor activity, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of Androgen receptor activity
    • Regulation of TP53 Activity, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of TP53 Activity, organism-specific biosystemProtein stability and transcriptional activity of TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor are regulated by post-translational modifications that include ubiquitination, phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation,...
    • Regulation of TP53 Activity through Phosphorylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of TP53 Activity through Phosphorylation, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of TP53 (p53) at the N-terminal serine residues S15 and S20 plays a critical role in protein stabilization as phosphorylation at these sites interferes with binding of the ubiquitin l...
    • Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystemRNA elements rich in adenine and uracil residues (AU-rich elements) bind specific proteins which either target the RNA for degradation or, more rarely, stabilize the RNA. The activity of the AU-eleme...
    • Regulation of p38-alpha and p38-beta, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of p38-alpha and p38-beta, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of p38-alpha and p38-beta
    • Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of retinoblastoma protein
    • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    • Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling
    • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
    • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
    • Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes
    • S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P2 pathway
    • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
    • Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystemShigellosis, or bacillary dysentery, is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella, a genus of enterobacteria. Shigella are potential food-borne pathogens that are capable of colonizing the intestina...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystemIn the initial response to injury, platelets adhere to damaged blood vessels, responding to the exposure of collagen from the vascular epithelium. Once adhered they degranulate, releasing stored seco...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling mediated by p38-alpha and p38-beta, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling mediated by p38-alpha and p38-beta, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling mediated by p38-alpha and p38-beta
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
    • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystemPathway published in http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1003470 IL-1 signaling pathway reconstructed by combining related pathways and information from the litera...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe signal transduction mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological activities of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) have been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 30 years ago. TGF-? li...
    • TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
    • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
    • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling
    • Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway
    • Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemLittle is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may als...
    • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
    • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
    • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
    • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modif...
    • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
    • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
    • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
    • Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...
    • Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR3 signaling in lymphatic endothelium, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      VEGFR3 signaling in lymphatic endothelium, organism-specific biosystem
      VEGFR3 signaling in lymphatic endothelium
    • activated TAK1 mediates p38 MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      activated TAK1 mediates p38 MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemp38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) belongs to a highly conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The p38 MAPK-dependent signaling cascade is activated by pro-inflammatory or stre...
    • p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemp38 MAPKs are members of the MAPK family that are activated by a variety of environmental stresses and inflammatory cytokines. Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by members of small GTPases...
    • p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      p38 MAPK signaling pathway
    • p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem
      p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases
    • p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystemNGF induces sustained activation of p38, a member of the MAPK family (Morooka T, Nishida E, 1998). Both p38 and the ERKs appear to be involved in neurite outgrowth and differentiation caused by NGF i...
    • p53 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p53 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      p53 pathway
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    MAP kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    MAP kinase kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    NFAT protein binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein phosphatase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    3'-UTR-mediated mRNA stabilization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA damage checkpoint IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Ras protein signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    activation of MAPK activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    angiogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cartilage condensation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to ionizing radiation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipoteichoic acid IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to virus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemotaxis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    chondrocyte differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    fatty acid oxidation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glucose metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    intracellular signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    movement of cell or subcellular component TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    myoblast differentiation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    osteoclast differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    p38MAPK cascade ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    placenta development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    NOT positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cyclase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of glucose import IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of interleukin-12 secretion IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of metallopeptidase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of muscle cell differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of myoblast differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of myoblast fusion ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of myotube differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein import into nucleus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of ossification IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    response to muramyl dipeptide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to muscle stretch IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    signal transduction in response to DNA damage IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    skeletal muscle tissue development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    stress-induced premature senescence IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    striated muscle cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    transcription, DNA-templated IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cytoplasm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ficolin-1-rich granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nuclear speck IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    nucleus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    secretory granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    spindle pole IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    mitogen-activated protein kinase 14
    Names
    CSAID-binding protein
    Csaids binding protein
    MAP kinase 14
    MAP kinase Mxi2
    MAP kinase p38 alpha
    MAX-interacting protein 2
    cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drug binding protein
    mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha
    p38 MAP kinase
    p38 mitogen activated protein kinase
    p38alpha Exip
    stress-activated protein kinase 2A
    NP_001306.1
    NP_620581.1
    NP_620582.1
    NP_620583.1
    XP_006715061.1
    XP_011512612.2
    XP_016865788.1
    XP_016865789.1
    XP_016865790.1
    XP_016865791.1
    XP_016865792.1
    XP_016865793.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001315.2NP_001306.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001306.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      DA438432, L35263, Z95152
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS4815.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q16539
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      L7RSM2
      Related
      ENSP00000229795.3, OTTHUMP00000216561, ENST00000229795.7, OTTHUMT00000357449
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07877
      Location:6350
      STKc_p38alpha; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, p38alpha Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (also called MAPK14)
    2. NM_139012.2NP_620581.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620581.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains a different segment within the coding region when compared to variant 1. The translation frame remains the same, and the resulting isoform 2 has an internal segment different from that of isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF100544, DA438432, Z95152
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS4816.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q16539
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024RD15
      Related
      ENSP00000229794.4, OTTHUMP00000216562, ENST00000229794.8, OTTHUMT00000357450
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07877
      Location:6350
      STKc_p38alpha; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, p38alpha Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (also called MAPK14)
    3. NM_139013.2NP_620582.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620582.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains a different internal segment within the coding region, and a different 3' coding region as well as a different 3' UTR, when compared to variant 1. It thus encodes an isoform that has a different internal segment, and a distinct C-terminus, as compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      DA438432, U19775
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q16539
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00220
      Location:24262
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cl21453
      Location:6281
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    4. NM_139014.2NP_620583.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620583.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) contains a different internal segment when compared to variant 1. It thus encodes an isoform that has a different and shorter internal segment, as compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AB074150, DA438432, Z95152
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS4817.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q16539
      Related
      ENSP00000308669.4, OTTHUMP00000216564, ENST00000310795.8, OTTHUMT00000357452
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00220
      Location:24263
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cl21453
      Location:6257
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      36027635..36122964
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_017010300.1XP_016865789.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X3

    2. XM_017010299.1XP_016865788.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X2

    3. XM_017010301.1XP_016865790.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X4

    4. XM_011514310.2XP_011512612.2  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X1

    5. XM_017010304.1XP_016865793.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X7

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00220
      Location:24253
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cl21453
      Location:6254
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    6. XM_017010303.1XP_016865792.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X6

    7. XM_017010302.1XP_016865791.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X5

    8. XM_006714998.3XP_006715061.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 isoform X8

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006715061.1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4E0K5
      Related
      ENSP00000419837.1, OTTHUMP00000216563, ENST00000468133.5, OTTHUMT00000357451
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21453
      Location:1273
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain

    RNA

    1. XR_926065.1 RNA Sequence

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018917.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      35997235..36080771
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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