Elf5 inhibits lung metastasis in transplantable mouse models of metastasis
(a) GSEA showing negative enrichment of published EMT gene signatures38-41 in Elf5-LM2 compared to control cells. (b) Transwell migration assay of control or HA-Elf5 overexpressing LM2 cells. Data are shown as mean ± SD from triplicate experiments. *p < 0.05 by Student’s t-test. (c) Normalized BLI signals of lung metastases of mice (n = 8) injected intravenously with control or Elf5-overexpressing LM2 cells. Data represent average ± SEM. *p < 0.05 based on Mann-Whitney U test. (d) Representative BLI images of animals in each experimental group at the indicated time points. (e–f) Gross images (e) and quantification (f) of lung metastatic nodules from animals injected intravenously with control or Elf5-overexpressing LM2 cells. Size bar = 2 mm. **p < 0.01 by Student’s t-test. (g) Box plot showing the number of lung metastasis nodules from spontaneous metastases generated by control or Elf5 overexpressing 4T1 cells after mammary fat pad injection (n=12). p = 0.0455 calculated by Mann-Whitney U test. (h) Representative H&E stained lung sections. Arrows highlight metastatic nodules. Size bar = 2 mm. (i) Box plot showing number of lung metastasis nodules from experimental metastasis of control, HA-Elf5, or HA-Elf5 and FLAG-SNAIL2 overexpressing 4T1 cells. *p < 0.05 by Student t- test. (j) Represented gross images of lung nodules. Size bar = 2 mm.