(A) HGF and PDLF were incubated with purified KSHV (MOI~10), or UV-inactivated KSHV as a negative control, for 2 h. After cells were incubated for an additional 24 h in fresh media, IFA were performed as in Methods to quantify expression of KSHV-encoded LANA as indicated by the typical intranuclear, punctate staining pattern (red dots). Nuclei were identified using DAPI (blue). (B–C) HGF (B) and PDLF (C) were incubated with KSHV as in (A). After 72 h, qRT-PCR was used to quantify expression of transcripts encoding latent (LANA, vFLIP, and vCyclin) and lytic (RTA, vGPCR, K8.1, and vIL-6) viral proteins as detailed in Methods. Error bars represent the S.E.M. for three independent experiments.