p://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> ld Spring Harbor Laboratory. This pre-print is availald Spring Harbor Laboratory. This pre-print is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International), CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" /> ly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using trly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Usily thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tradily thought to have very low levels of admixture. Usingly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tradly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Usingly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using trly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tradly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approaches,a pushes modern human divergence beyond 260,000 years ago" /> a pushes modern human divergence beyond 260,000 years ago" /> cluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very lcluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very cluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to havecluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimatecluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimate the population divergence time between the Ballito Bay boy and other groups to beyond 260,000 years ago. These estimates dramatically increases the deepest divergence amongst modern humans, coincide with the onset of the Middle Stone Ag seven ancient individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Three Stone Age hunter-gatherers date to ~2,000 years ago, and we show that they were related to current-day southern San groups such as the Karretjie People. Four Iron Age farmers (300-500 years old) have genetic signatures similar to present day Bantu-speakers. The genome sequence (13x coverage) of a juvenile boy from Ballito Bay, who lived ~2,000 years ago, demonstrates that southern African Stone Age hunter-gatherers were not impacted by recent admixture; however, we estimate that all modern-day Khoekhoe and San groups have been influenced by 9-22% genetic admixture from East African/Eurasian pastoralist groups arriving &gt;1,000 years ago, including the Ju|9hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimate the population divergence time between the Ballito Bay boy and other groups to beyond 260,000 years ago. These estimates dramatically increases the deepest divergence amongst modern humans, coincide with the onset of the Middle Stone Age in sub-Saharan Africa, and coincide with anatomical developments of archaic humans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil record. Cumulatively, cross-disciplinary records increasingly point to southern Africa as a potential (not necessarily exclusive) 9hot spot9 for the evolution of our species.</p>" /> 9 for the evolution of our species.</p>" /> <9 for the evolution of our species.</p>" /> ="citation_author_institution" content="Uppsala University;" /> or_email" content="arielle.munters@ebc.uu.se" /> a name="description" content="bioRxiv - the preprint server for baa nama name="description" content="bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Labora name="descripaaaaefefault/files/advagg_css/css__uGxiwDeWBOA2NAqiRKvJS7CKqv2_wE38cKwCd6tvrVo__9I2cmDntdCq7855WKa28mKiwNEHe1lZo1btWRFzD3KA__f3wRoDrgZ579WMPw_kfvAGu982tNaiXWT1NjEEITHz8.css" media="all" /> yyyy yyrrrc="//rr v idth:idth: 980px) and (min-device-width: 980px), all and (max-device-width: 1024px) and (min-width: 1024px) andidth: 980pidth: 980px) and (min-device-width: 980px), all and (max-device-width: 1024px) and (min-width: 1024px) and (orientation:landscape)","wide":"all and (min-width: 1220px)"}}}}); //--> idth: 980idth: 980px) re_2col" id="page">
bioRxivre_2col" ire_2col" id="page"> re_2col" id="pagere_2colre_2core_2col" id="page">
re_2col" id="page">
re_2re_2re_2core_2col" id="page"> re_2c
  • <
  • <
  • <
  • r button-mini">r buttrrr buttr button-r button-minir buttor button-mini">r button-mini">r buttr button-minir buttor button-r buttor button-mir button-r buttor buttr button-mini">eeeet" typeet" typeeet" type="teeet" tyeet" typeeet" tyeet" type="eet" typeeet" tyeet" typeet" tyeet" typeet" type="teet" type="text/css" />
  • eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css"eet" type="text/css" /> eet" type="text/css" />
    09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-instance="highwire_author_tooltip">
    09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-instance="hig09.at09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-instance="highwire_autho09.atom09.a09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-instan09.atom"09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-inst09.atom09.atom" 09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-instance="highwire_author_tooltip">
    09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-instance="hig09.at09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-instance="highwire_autho09.atom09.a09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-inst09.atom"09.atom" data-hw-author-tooltip-ins09.atom09.atom" 09.atom" data-hw-author-tation-author hw-author-orcid-logo-wrapper" data-delta="2">highwire-cite-metadata-doi highwirhighhighwhighwire-cite-metadata-doi highwire-cithighwire-cite-metadata-doihighhighwhighwire-cite-metadata-doi highwire-highwire-cite-metadata-doi highwirehighhighwhighwire-cite-metadata-doi highwirehighwire-cite-metadata-doi hilebuschlebulebuslebuslebusclebusch
    lebusch
    lebusch
    lebusch
    lebusch
    xt"> Uppsala University;xt"> Uppsaxt"> Uppsala Uxt"> Upxt">xt"> Uppsalaxt">xt">xt"> Uppsxt"> Uppxt">xt"> Uppxt"> xt">xt"> xt"> Uppsala Unixt"> Uppsala xt"> Upxt"> Uppsala University;xt"> Uppsaxt"> Uppsala U=googlescholar&gs_type=author&=goo=goog=googlescholar&gs_type=author&a=googlescholar&gs_type=goo=goog=googlescholar&gs_type=author&aut=googlescholar&gs_type=author&a=goo=goog=goog=googl=googlescholar&gs_type=aut=googlescholar&gs_type=author&author%5B0%5D=googl=googlescholar&gs_type=author&au=googlescholar&gs_type=author&=googlescholar&gs_type=author&author%5B0%5D=google=google=googl=googlescholar&gs_type=author&=googlescholar&gs_type=author&aut=googlescholar&gs_type=author&=goo=goog=googlescholar&gs_type=author&a=googlescholar&gs_type=goo=goog=googlescholar&gs_type=author&aut=googlescholar&gs_type=author&a=goo=goog=goog=googl=googlescholar&gs_type=aut=googlescholar&gs_type=author&author%=googl=googlescholar&gs_type=author&au=googlescholar&gs_type=author&=googlescholar&gs_type=author&author%5B0%5D=google=google=googl=googlescholar&gs_type=author&=googlescholar&gs_type=author&auta-icon-position="" data-hide-link-a-ica-icoa-icon-position="" data-hide-link-titlea-icon-position="" data-hia-ica-icoa-icon-position="" data-hide-link-tia-icon-position="" data-hide-link-ta-ica-icoa-icon-position="" data-hide-link-ta-icon-position="" data-hide-a-ica-icoa-icoa-icona-icon-position="" data-hide-la-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title="0">Find ta-icona-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title=a-icon-position="" data-hide-link-a-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title="0">Find tha-icon-a-icon-a-icona-icon-position="" data-hide-link-tita-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title="a-icon-position="" data-hide-link-a-ica-icoa-icon-position="" data-hide-link-titlea-icon-position="" data-hia-ica-icoa-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title="a-icon-position="" data-hide-link-ta-ica-icoa-icoa-icona-icon-position="" data-hide-la-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title="0">Fa-icona-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title=a-icon-position="" data-hide-link-a-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title="0">Find this author on a-icon-a-icon-a-icona-icon-position="" data-hide-link-tita-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title=""0">Find this author on Google Sch"0">"0">F"0">Find this author on Google Scholar<"0">Find this author on Go"0">"0">F"0">Find this author on Google Scholar"0">Find this author on Google Scho"0">"0">F"0">F"0">Fi"0">Find this author on Google"0">Find this author on Google Scholar"0">Fi"0">Find this author on Google ScholarFind this author on Google Sch"0">Find this author on Google Scholar
  • awler-link">awle
  • /all/m/all/modules/contrib/panels_ajax_tab/iiv_tab_art">iv_tab_art">
    iv_tab_art">
    iv_taiv_tab_art">

    Abstract

    Southern Africa is consistently placed as one of the potential regions for the evolution of Homo sapiens. To examine the region's human prehistory prior to the arrival of migrants from East and West Africa or Eurasia in the last 1,700 years, we generated and analyzed genome sequence data from seven ancient individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Three Stone Age hunter-gatherers date to ~2,000 years ago, and we show that they were related to current-day southern San groups such as the Karretjie People. Four Iron Age farmers (300-500 years old) have genetic signatures similar to present day Bantu-speakers. The genome sequence (13x coverage) of a juvenile boy from Ballito Bay, who lived ~2,000 years ago, demonstrates that southern African Stone Age hunter-gathmans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil record. Cumulatively, cross-disciplinary records increasingly point to southern Africa as a potential (not necessarily exclusive) 'hot spot' for the evolution of our species.mansmans imans into modern humans as represented in the locamans inmans imans into modern humans mans inmans imans intmans into modmans inmans into modern humans as remans imans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil recormans into modern humans as reprmans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil record. Cumulatively, cross-disciplinarymans into modern humans as represented imans imans into modern humans amans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil record. Cumulatively, cross-dimans into modern humans as represented in the local fossimans into modern humans as representemans mans inmans imans imans intmans into modmans inmans intomans inmans inmans imans intmans into modmans inmans into modern humans as remans imans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil remans into modern humans as reprmans into modern humans mans into manmans into modern humans as mansmansmans into mmans intmans into modmans inmans into modern humans as remans imans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil record. mans into modern humans as reprmans into modern humans as mans into modernmans imans into modmans inmans into mans intomans into momans into modern humans as represented in the local fmans into modern humans as represented in the local fossilmans into modern hummans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil record.mans into modern humans as reprmans into m"pager highwire-pager pager-mini clearfix highwire-node-pager highwire-article-pager">"pager highwire-pager pagy/2017/06/05/146332" title="A crossy/20y/2017/06/05/146y/20y/20y/2017y/2017/06/05/y/2017/y/2017/06/05/146332" title="Ay/2017y/2017/06/05/146332" title="A cross-sectional study of set shifting impairments and fallingy/2017/06/05/146332" title="A cy/2017/06/05/146332" title="A cross-sey/2017/06/05/146332" title="A cnk-link'>nk-link'>nk-linknk-link'>nk-link-link'><nnk-linknk-link'>

    ype-item"> ype-item"> ype-item"> ype-item">
    eparator">
    eparator">eparator">
    eparator">
    pan class="highwire-citation-author" dapan claspan class="highwire-citation-authopan clapan classpan class="highwire-citation-author" data-delta="4">papan class=pan class="highwire-citation-author" dpan class="highwire-citation-author" data-delta="4">Alexandra Copydata-clipboadata-clidata-clidata-clipboardata-cldata-clipdata-clipboardata-clipboard-alert-text="Copied!">Copy Copy data-clipboard-alert-text="Copidata-clipboard-alert-text="del.icio.us logodata-Digg logodata-Reddit logodata-Technorati logoww.biTwitter logoare?uCiteULike logoare?uConnotea logoare?uFacebook logoare?uGoogle logofrom%Mendeley logofromfrom%20sfrom%20southefrom%20from%20soufrom%20sofrom%20sofrom%20southefrom%20from%20southern%20Africa%20pufrom%2from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%20human%20divergence%20beyond%20260%2C000%20yearfrom%20southern%20Africa%20pushfrom%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20mofrom%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modefrom%20southern%20Afrifrom%from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%from%20fromfrom%2from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%20human%20divergenfrom%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%20human%20divergfrom%20from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%20human%20divergence%20beyond%20260%2C000from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modefrom%from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%20human%20divergence%20beyonfrom%20southern%20Africa%20pushfrom%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%from%20southern%20Africa%20pushes%20modern%20human%20divergence%20beyond%20260%2C000%20years%20ago" id="google" title="Bookmark this post on Google" class="service-links-google" rel="nofollow" data-icon-posly/2017/06/05/145409.atom">ly/2017/06/05/145409.atom">
    fix" >
  • MendeleyMendelehide-link-title="0">Menhidehide-link-title="0
  • <" data-icon-position="" data-hide-link-title="0">Facebook Like
  • ible-region-inside-last">
    ible-region-inside-last">
    ible-region-inside-lible-regiible-rible-regible-regiible-region-iible-reible-region-inside-last">
    ible-region-inside-last">
    ible-region-inside-last">
    ible-region-ible-ible-region-inside-last">
    ible-region-inible-ible-region-inside-last">
    ible-region-inible-ible-region-inside-last">
    ible-regioible-ible-regios = "article-count">(954)s = "ars = "as = "as = "article-count">(954)
  • s = "article-count">(954)s = "article-cs = "s = "article-count">(954)
    (954)
    s = "article-count">(954)s = "articles = "s = "article-count">(954)(954)
    s = "article-count">(954)s = "article-cos = "s = "article-count">(954)(954) s = "article-count">(954)s = "article-count">(s = "s = "article-count">(954)(954) s = "article-count">(954)s = "ars = "s = "article-count">(954)(954) s = "article-count">(954)s = "articles = "s = "article-count">(954)(954) s = "article-count">(954)s = "article-count">s = "s = "article-count">(954)(954) s = "article-count">(954)s = "arts = "s = "article-count">(954)(954) s = "article-count">(954)lass="" lass=lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hlass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" dalass=lass="" data-icon-position="" data-lass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" datalass=lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hlass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" data-iconlass=lass="" data-icon-position="" data-lass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" datalass=lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hlass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" datalass=lass="" data-icon-position="" datalass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" dlass=lass="" data-icon-position="" datalass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" data-icon-position=lass=lass="" data-icon-position="" data-lass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position="" data-hide-linklass="" data-icon-position="lass="" dalass=lass="" data-icon-position="" data-lass=""lass="lass="lass="" data-icon-position= depth-2 child"> depth-2 child">