tp://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> old Spring Harbor Laboratory. This pre-print is availold Spring Harbor Laboratory. This pre-print is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International), CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" /> sly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tradisly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using trsly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tsly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Ussly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tradsly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Usinsly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using trasly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Usinsly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using sly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using tsly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using trasly thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approacheca pushes modern human divergence beyond 260,000 years ago" /> ca pushes modern human divergence beyond 260,000 years ago" /> ncluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very ncluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have veryncluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to havncluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimatncluding the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimate the population divergence time between the Ballito Bay boy and other groups to beyond 260,000 years ago. These estimates dramatically increases the deepest divergence amongst modern humans, coincide with the onset of the Middle Stone m seven ancient individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Three Stone Age hunter-gatherers date to ~2,000 years ago, and we show that they were related to current-day southern San groups such as the Karretjie People. Four Iron Age farmers (300-500 years old) have genetic signatures similar to present day Bantu-speakers. The genome sequence (13x coverage) of a juvenile boy from Ballito Bay, who lived ~2,000 years ago, demonstrates that southern African Stone Age hunter-gatherers were not impacted by recent admixture; however, we estimate that all modern-day Khoekhoe and San groups have been influenced by 9-22% genetic admixture from East African/Eurasian pastoralist groups arriving &gt;1,000 years ago, including the Ju|9hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimate the population divergence time between the Ballito Bay boy and other groups to beyond 260,000 years ago. These estimates dramatically increases the deepest divergence amongst modern humans, coincide with the onset of the Middle Stone Age in sub-Saharan Africa, and coincide with anatomical developments of archaic humans into modern humans as represented in the local fossil record. Cumulatively, cross-disciplinary records increasingly point to southern Africa as a potential (not necessarily exclusive) 9hot spot9 for the evolution of our species.</p>" /> t they were related to current-day southern San groups sut they were related to curreer" content="Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory" /> er" content="Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory" /> er" content="Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory" /> er" content="Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory" /> _author_institution" content="University of the Witwatersrand;" /> _author_institution" content="University of the Witwatersrand;" /> ch and educational institution" /> cch anch and educational institution" /> ccccDrDrgZ579WMPw_kfvAGu982tNaiXWT1NjEEITHz8.css" media="all" /> eeee eejj j nd (mnd (min-device-width: 980px), all and (max-device-width: 1024px) and (min-width: 1024px) and (orientation:nd (min-dend (min-device-width: 980px), all and (max-device-width: 1024px) and (min-width: 1024px) and (orientation:landscape)","wide":"all and (min-width: 1220px)"}}}}); //--> age">
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