[HTML][HTML] Compensatory mutations, antibiotic resistance and the population genetics of adaptive evolution in bacteria

BR Levin, V Perrot, N Walker - Genetics, 2000 - Genetics Soc America
In the absence of the selecting drugs, chromosomal mutations for resistance to antibiotics
and other chemotheraputic agents commonly engender a cost in the fitness of
microorganisms. Recent in vivo and in vitro experimental studies of the adaptation to these
“costs of resistance” in Escherichia coli, HIV, and Salmonella typhimurium found that
evolution in the absence of these drugs commonly results in the ascent of mutations that ...