Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may be used as an adjuvant intraoperative treatment to improve locoregional control. PDT has been shown both to delay wound healing and to have a deleterious effect on flap survival after a primary ischemic insult. This delay in wound healing may make the flap dependent on its pedicled blood supply for a prolonged period. Long-term flap loss may be experienced. The effect of PDT on flap revascularization, with subsequent dependence on its vascular pedicle, is evaluated.
Randomized controlled trial using a rodent model.
A rat fasciocutaneous flap was used. Study groups were as follows: group I received no treatment; group II received treatment with 630-nm light; groups IH and IV were given Photofrin (in group III, loupes without a fiberoptic light source were used for flap elevation, and in group IV, light source was employed); and group V was given Photofrin and 630-nm light. Primary ischemic times of 2 or 4 hours were used. Vascular pedicles were ligated on postoperative day (POD) 5, 6, or 7, and percentage of flap survival was evaluated 7 days later.
With 2 hours of ischemia, revascularization was decreased in the PDT group on POD 6 (P < .05) and on day 7 (P < .005) when compared with the other groups. With 4 hours of ischemia, revascularization was decreased in the PDT group on PODs 5 (P < .001), 6 (P < .01), and 7 (P < .005).
Intraoperative PDT decreases revascularization of a rat fasciocutaneous flap.