Sarcoidosis is a relatively common systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The skeletal system is affected in up to 39% of patients, but intraosseous sarcoidosis affecting the maxilla and mandible is rare. Only 20 cases have been reported previously in the English literature. This paper presents a case of generalized intraosseous sarcoidosis of the jaw bones that mimicked rapidly progressive periodontitis.
A 46-year-old male patient presented with loose teeth for assessment of implants. He had been gradually losing his teeth since 1999. His past medical history was significant, with sarcoidosis diagnosed in 1998. A panoramic radiograph showed a bilateral cotton-wool appearance of the mandible. A soft tissue and bone biopsy was performed and sent for histological examination.
Microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed non-caseating granulomatous inflammation consistent with skeletal sarcoidosis.
Intraosseous sarcoidosis of the jaw bones is rare and presents commonly as progressive and rapid alveolar bone loss similar to periodontitis. Therefore, it is important for periodontists to be knowledgeable and able to diagnose this condition, as rapid alveolar bone loss may be the first sign of sarcoidosis.