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Adhesion of the ΔnanH mutant strain of T. forsythia to glycoprotein surfaces without (black bars) and with purified NanH (rNanH) (grey bars). Biofilms were set up in triplicate and wells were supplemented with 6 mM sialic acid (sialic) or 6 mM sialyl-lactose (sia-lac) to the TSB medium, or were coated with 6 mM mucin, fetuin and asialofetuin (as-fet), 2 µg human serum ml−1 (serum) or saliva, as indicated at the time of inoculation. Glycoproteins were coated on the 96-well plate overnight at 4 °C and washed before inoculation with T. forsythia to a final OD600 of 0.05. Data are the number of cells with sds after harvesting from wells after 3 h. Differences between mean values in this experiment were evaluated by t test, with P<0.05 being taken as the level of significance (*statistically significant).