Lautropia mirabilis, a pleomorphic, motile, gram-negative coccus, has been isolated from the oral cavities of 32 of 60 (53.3%) children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 3 of 25 (12.0%) HIV-uninfected controls; the association of L. mirabilis isolation with HIV infection is significant (P < 0.001). All children in the study, both HIV-infected children and controls, were born to HIV-infected mothers. The presence of this bacterium was not associated with clinical disease in these children. The HIV-infected children with L. mirabilis did not differ from the HIV-infected children without L. mirabilis in immunological status, clinical status, or systemic medications. The role of HIV infection itself or concomitant factors in the establishment of L. mirabilis in the oral cavity remains to be elucidated.