The interactions between oral and systemic health are bi-directional and complex, involving many pathways. Regarding health as not merely the absence of disease, but as a state of total well-being, these interactions profoundly influence the progress of many diseases, and the quality of life and economic performance of HIV-infected individuals and populations. The evidence base for specific interactions is currently weak, partly because few good-quality studies have been published, partly because of the naïveté of the instruments currently available for recording these interactions and their inherent complexity. Recording quality of life should be a fundamental aspect of all future studies. The most significant conclusion of this Workshop is the need for all involved in oral health research and oral health care to be seen as, and to act as, essential partners in comprehensive care for whole patients and communities.