During the course of HIV disease, oral lesions frequently are the initial manifestation of underlying immune deterioration. Typically, these lesions are readily accessible and lend themselves to being examined. Therefore, it is important to perform oral examinations routinely both in dental and medical settings. The recognition and treatment of these early signs of immune suppression may have a significant impact on the survival and the quality of life of HIV-infected patients. This article briefly discusses the HIV epidemic and common intraoral manifestations associated with HIV disease progression.