The literature on joint effusion (JE) and its association with clinical and radiologic variables in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) is inconsistent and is characterized by multiple methodologic limitations. The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified JE and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia. The secondary aim of this investigation was to determine the association between JE and other clinical and MRI-identified soft tissue characteristics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Clinical and soft tissue imaging assessments were carried out according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders guidelines. The dependent variable was JE and the primary independent variable was arthralgia. The secondary independent variables were TMJ pain-associated characteristics and MRI-identified variables. When applicable, Pearson χ2 or t test was used to determine the statistical associations between JE and clinical characteristics and between JE and MRI-identified variables. Furthermore, generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling was conducted to determine which of the independent clinical and MRI-identified variables were associated with JE.
Data for 158 participants, representing 312 joints, were extracted. The mean age of the female sample (59.4%) was 31 ± 11.1 years and that of the male sample (40.6%) was 29.8 ± 9.7 years. No association was found between JE and arthralgia. However, statistically significant associations were found between JE and lateral disc rotation (P = .001) and between JE and disc position in the coronal and sagittal planes (P = .001). The GEE model suggested that disc displacement with reduction (odds ratio = 2.5) was a statistically relevant contributing factor for JE in the absence of degenerative joint disease.
Results associated JE with the position of the disc in the sagittal plane. No association was found between JE and arthralgia or TMJ pain-associated clinical characteristics in patients with TMDs.
Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.