Little is known about the involvement of saliva in gingival overgrowth (GO). It was hypothesized that, in this situation, the composition of saliva is altered. Thus, proteins, albumin, cytokines, and growth factors in whole and glandular saliva were investigated. Differences between glandular and gingival contributions to the composition of saliva were explored in patients medicated with cyclosporin who exhibited GO (responders), those without GO (non-responders), and non-medicated subjects (controls). In whole saliva, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, IL-8, epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and albumin were detected, but in glandular saliva only EGF and NGF were identified. Albumin and IL-6 differed significantly between responders and controls, although the overall profile of salivary proteins remained unchanged. Thus, inflammatory cytokines and albumin are confined to whole saliva and are associated with GO, whereas its content of EGF and NGF appears unaffected by cyclosporin.