Endodontic surgery is an alternative therapeutic approach to endodontic treatment. The outcome of the technique is affected by several factors, some of which can be eliminated by the use of a dental operating microscope. The microscope was used during the performance of 50 apicoectomies, with or without retrograde fillings. For clinical evaluation cases treated with the dental operating microscope were compared to cases treated without it. The postoperative evaluation showed a reduced incidence of symptoms in the cases treated with the dental operating microscope. More important, the dental operating microscope enhanced and facilitated each phase of endodontic surgery. Its use is highly recommended.