Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent conditions in adults, and afflict many individuals of all ages. They refer to a cluster of inflammatory conditions of the periodontium, the tissues that surround the teeth. Ultimately, periodontal diseases cause the loss of alveolar bone support and may lead to tooth loss. The clinical presentation of periodontal diseases is primarily independent of the age of a person, and successful diagnosis and treatment can be achieved in both young and old individuals. These diseases primarily include gingivitis, periodontitis and oral vesiculobullous diseases of the gingival tissues. Multiple oral, systemic and behavioural factors contribute to the occurrence and progression of these conditions. Appropriate treatment requires accurate diagnosis and the use of oral nonsurgical and surgical techniques, topical and systemic medications and an emphasis on self-applied oral hygiene practices.