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Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):177-83. doi: 10.1038/nature16549. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4.

Collaborators (307)

Ripke S, Neale BM, Corvin A, Walters JT, Farh KH, Holmans PA, Lee P, Bulik-Sullivan B, Collier DA, Huang H, Pers TH, Agartz I, Agerbo E, Albus M, Alexander M, Amin F, Bacanu SA, Begemann M, Belliveau RA Jr, Bene J, Bergen SE, Bevilacqua E, Bigdeli TB, Black DW, Bruggeman R, Buccola NG, Buckner RL, Byerley W, Cahn W, Cai G, Cairns MJ, Campion D, Cantor RM, Carr VJ, Carrera N, Catts SV, Chambert KD, Chan RC, Chen RY, Chen EY, Cheng W, Cheung EF, Chong SA, Cloninger C, Cohen D, Cohen N, Cormican P, Craddock N, Crespo-Facorro B, Crowley JJ, Curtis D, Davidson M, Davis KL, Degenhardt F, Del Favero J, DeLisi LE, Demontis D, Dikeos D, Dinan T, Djurovic S, Donohoe G, Drapeau E, Duan J, Dudbridge F, Durmishi N, Eichhammer P, Eriksson J, Escott-Price V, Essioux L, Fanous AH, Farrell MS, Frank J, Franke L, Freedman R, Freimer NB, Friedl M, Friedman JI, Fromer M, Genovese G, Georgieva L, Gershon ES, Giegling I, Giusti-Rodríguez P, Godard S, Goldstein JI, Golimbet V, Gopal S, Gratten J, de Haan L, Hammer C, Hamshere ML, Hansen M, Hansen T, Haroutunian V, Hartmann AM, Henskens FA, Herms S, Hirschhorn JN, Hoffmann P, Hofman A, Hollegaard MV, Hougaard DM, Ikeda M, Joa I, Julià A, Kahn RS, Kalaydjieva L, Karachanak-Yankova S, Karjalainen J, Kavanagh D, Keller MC, Kelly BJ, Kennedy JL, Khrunin A, Kim Y, Klovins J, Knowles JA, Konte B, Kucinskas V, Kucinskiene ZA, Kuzelova-Ptackova H, Kähler AK, Laurent C, Keong JL, Lee S, Legge SE, Lerer B, Li M, Li T, Liang KY, Lieberman J, Limborska S, Loughland CM, Lubinski J, Lönnqvist J, Macek M Jr, Magnusson PK, Maher BS, Maier W, Mallet J, Marsal S, Mattheisen M, Mattingsdal M, McCarley RW, McDonald C, McIntosh AM, Meier S, Meijer CJ, Melegh B, Melle I, Mesholam-Gately RI, Metspalu A, Michie PT, Milani L, Milanova V, Mokrab Y, Morris DW, Mors O, Murphy KC, Murray RM, Myin-Germeys I, Müller-Myhsok B, Nelis M, Nenadic I, Nertney DA, Nestadt G, Nicodemus KK, Nikitina-Zake L, Nisenbaum L, Nordin A, O'Callaghan E, O'Dushlaine C, O'Neill FA, Oh SY, Olincy A, Olsen L, Van Os J, Pantelis C, Papadimitriou GN, Papiol S, Parkhomenko E, Pato MT, Paunio T, Pejovic-Milovancevic M, Perkins DO, Pietiläinen O, Pimm J, Pocklington AJ, Powell J, Price A, Pulver AE, Purcell SM, Quested D, Rasmussen HB, Reichenberg A, Reimers MA, Richards AL, Roffman JL, Roussos P, Ruderfer DM, Salomaa V, Sanders AR, Schall U, Schubert CR, Schulze TG, Schwab SG, Scolnick EM, Scott RJ, Seidman LJ, Shi J, Sigurdsson E, Silagadze T, Silverman JM, Sim K, Slominsky P, Smoller JW, So HC, Spencer CC, Stahl EA, Stefansson H, Steinberg S, Stogmann E, Straub RE, Strengman E, Strohmaier J, Stroup T, Subramaniam M, Suvisaari J, Svrakic DM, Szatkiewicz JP, Söderman E, Thirumalai S, Toncheva D, Tooney PA, Tosato S, Veijola J, Waddington J, Walsh D, Wang D, Wang Q, Webb BT, Weiser M, Wildenauer DB, Williams NM, Williams S, Witt SH, Wolen AR, Wong EH, Wormley BK, Wu JQ, Xi HS, Zai CC, Zheng X, Zimprich F, Wray NR, Stefansson K, Visscher PM, Adolfsson R, Andreassen OA, Blackwood DH, Bramon E, Buxbaum JD, Børglum AD, Cichon S, Darvasi A, Domenici E, Ehrenreich H, Esko T, Gejman PV, Gill M, Gurling H, Hultman CM, Iwata N, Jablensky AV, Jönsson EG, Kendler KS, Kirov G, Knight J, Lencz T, Levinson DF, Li QS, Liu J, Malhotra AK, McCarroll SA, McQuillin A, Moran JL, Mortensen PB, Mowry BJ, Nöthen MM, Ophoff RA, Owen MJ, Palotie A, Pato CN, Petryshen TL, Posthuma D, Rietschel M, Riley BP, Rujescu D, Sham PC, Sklar P, St Clair D, Weinberger DR, Wendland JR, Werge T, Daly MJ, Sullivan PF, O'Donovan MC.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
2
Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
3
MD-PhD Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
4
Department of Neurology, F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
5
Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
6
Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to its tendency to generate greater expression of C4A. Human C4 protein localized to neuronal synapses, dendrites, axons, and cell bodies. In mice, C4 mediated synapse elimination during postnatal development. These results implicate excessive complement activity in the development of schizophrenia and may help explain the reduced numbers of synapses in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia.

PMID:
26814963
PMCID:
PMC4752392
DOI:
10.1038/nature16549
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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