Collagen is a highly versatile material, extensively used in the medical, dental, and pharmacological fields. Collagen is capable of being prepared into cross-linked compacted solids or into lattice-like gels. Resorbable forms of collagen have been used to dress oral wounds, for closure of graft and extraction sites, and to promote healing. Collagen-based membranes also have been used in periodontal and implant therapy as barriers to prevent epithelial migration and allow cells with regenerative capacity to repopulate the defect area. It has been hypothesized that membrane regenerative techniques facilitate the natural biological potential by creating a favorable environment for periodontal and peri-implant regeneration. Due to the enormous potential of collagen-based regenerative barriers, clinicians may benefit from a review of potential applications of implantable collagen and knowledge of collagen preparation and membrane types as well as from as awareness of the functional and degradation properties of those materials.