The purpose of this study was to assess local inflammatory changes associated with the implantation of three different porcine collagen membranes having potential use in periodontal regeneration.
Materials were implanted subcutaneously into prepared sites along the dorsal skin surface of 60 female Wistar rats. Saline and turpentine were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Animals were killed and biopsies obtained after 3 d, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after membrane implantation. A panel of six monoclonal antibodies was used to identify circulating monocytes (ED1), resident tissue macrophages (ED2), lymphoid macrophages (ED3), Ia-antigen expression (OX6), T-lymphocytes (OX19), and B-lymphocytes (OX33). Cells identified by each antibody were subjected to quantitative immunocytochemistry to compare any differences present among groups. Sera obtained 8 weeks after grafting were used in immunoblotting assays to detect the presence of systemic antiporcine antibodies.
We found that the mononuclear cell subsets associated with implantation of porcine collagen membranes were similar to those obtained with saline administration. On the other hand, the use of turpentine resulted in an inflammatory infiltrate characterized by significantly higher numbers of all six monoclonal cell subsets at all time periods evaluated, compared to either saline or any of the membranes (P < 0.001).
The collagen membranes do not appear to be associated with a significant local inflammatory response, nor a systemic immune response, and thus appear to be well tolerated, rendering them useful in periodontal regeneration.