Failure of TKA from aseptic loosening is a growing concern, as TKA is performed with increasing frequency. Loosening is multifactorial and may be associated with elevated inflammatory cytokines in addition to biomechanical failure.
We asked whether proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are elevated in synovial fluid from patients undergoing revision surgery as compared to those with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
We obtained synovial fluid samples from 20 patients: six with aseptic loosening of TKA (all with bone loss), 10 with primary OA, and four with RA. A panel of cytokines/chemokines was screened using a SearchLight(®) Array (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL, USA) in one revision sample. Using these data, we assayed the synovial fluids for monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) by ELISA.
We observed an increase in synovial MCP-1 levels in samples from patients planned for TKA revision compared to those with OA or RA. In patients undergoing revision arthroplasty, the mean (± SD) MCP-1 concentration was 21,233 ± 18,966 pg/mL (range, 1550-50,657 pg/mL; n = 6). In patients with OA, the mean MCP-1 level was 3012 ± 3321 pg/mL. In patients with RA, the mean MCP-1 concentration was 690 ± 561 pg/mL.
All patients undergoing revision TKA showed elevated concentrations of MCP-1 compared to patients with OA and RA, suggesting MCP-1 may serve as a potential marker or predictor of bone loss in patients undergoing revision surgery.
MCP-1 may be a novel biomarker in patients showing early symptoms of aseptic loosening of TKA.